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To learn more about the American Turners, and the Cincinnati Turners in particular, please consult:

Adams, William.  The Turners in Bloomington: Bloomington, Illinois Turnverein, 1855-1948.  Normal, IL: William H. Adams, 1998.

Ervin, James and Plungis, Joan. Central Turners, Inc. Records, 1848-1948.  Cincinnati: Cincinnati Central Turners, 1962.

Gollmer, Hugo.  Namensliste der Pioniere des Nord-Amerik, Turnerbundes der Jahre 1848-1862.  Indianapolis: Indiana Chapter, Palatines to America, 1992.

Grace, Kevin.  Sporting Man: Garry Herrmann and the 1909 Cincinnati Turnfest. Cincinnati Occasional Papers in German-Americana.  Cincinnati: University of Cincinnati, 2004.

Hofmann, Annette R., ed.  Turnen and Sport: Transatlantic Transfers.  New York, NY: Waxmann, 2004.

Hofmann, Annette R. and Kruger, Michael.  Sudwestdeautsche Turner in der Emigration. Schorndorf: Verlag Karl Hofmann, 2004.

Hoyt, Dolores J.  A Strong Mind in a Strong Body: Libraries in the German-American Turner Movement.  New York, NY: Peter Lang, 1999.

Learned, Marion Dexter.  The German-American Turner Lyric.  Baltimore: C. W. Schneidereith & Sons, 1897.

McDougal, Robert A.  Composite Index to the Five Lists of Members of the Athenaeum Turners and Damenverein and the Socialer Turnverein Stock Association of Indianapolis, Indiana, 1880-ca. 1918.  Indianapolis: Indiana Chapter, Palatines to     America, 1995.

Metzner, Henry.  History of the American Turners.  Louisville: National Council of the American Turners, 1989. (reprint).

n.a.  Cincinnati Central Turners Sesquicentennial Celebration, August 1, 1998. Cincinnati: Cincinnati Central Turners, 1998.

n.a.  Golden Jubilee: Concordia Turn-Verein, Saint Louis, Missouri, January 1925.  St. Louis: Concordia Gymnastic Society, 1925.

n.a.  Liederbuchel fur Turner/Herausgegeben von der Cincinnati Turngemeinde.  Cincinnati: Cincinnati Turngemeinde, 1915.

n.a.  Lincoln Baren-Wisch, No. 2.  Chicago: Lincoln TurnVerein, 1902. 

Pumroy, Eric L. and Rampelmann, Katja, comps.  Research Guide to the Turner Movement in the United States.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.

Rath, Emil.  Aesthetic Dancing.  New York, NY: A.S. Barnes Compnay, 1914.

Stecher, W.A., ed.  Gymnastics: A Text-Book of the German-American System of Gymnastics.  Boston: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co., 1895.

Wamsley, K.B.  “A Home in the South: The Turners of Galveston, Texas, 1840-1865. In: Ethnicity and Sport in North American History and Culture, ed. by George Eisen and David K. Wiggins.  Westport, CT; Praeger, 1995.